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First posted on November 25th 2010

The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in 1535 and included the Captaincy General of Cuba (i.e. the Spanish West Indies), the Captaincies of Guatemala and Yucatan, the Kingdoms of Mexico, Nueva Galicia, Nueva Vizcaya, Nuevo Reino de Leon (from which Reino de Santander was split in 1786) , the Provinces of Nueva Extremadura, Nuevo Mexico de Santa Fe and, since 1565, the Captaincy General of the Philippines (including the Marianas and Caroline Islands). Briefly also Terra Ferma (Spanish South America) was part of New Spain; in 1542 it was split off as the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1570 the Audiencia of Panama was ceded by New Spain to the Viceroyalty of Peru.
Much of the territory claimed by the Viceroyalty of New Spain was only nominally under their control : so many of the East Caribbean islands, which were held by Caribs fiercely resisting any encroachment in their territory, or which were depopulated due to the deportation of the population by the Spanish to work on haziendas elsewhere, and then claimed by the British, French or Dutch. The lowlands on the Caribbean coast of Central America and Yucatan long resisted Spanish colonization (Peten was conquered as late as 1697), and was of little attraction to the Spanish who preferred to reside in the highlands. So Mosquitia and Belize became British protectorates, and the British deported the Black and Red Caribs from St. Vincent to settle them on the Honduran north coast in 1796, without bothering to request permission from the Spanish authorities. There were few Spaniards in what is today California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas; most of the territory de facto was controlled by native American tribes. Similarly, the Spanish claim over the Pacific islands was rather nominal.
Spanish control was strong in the highlands of central and southern Mexico and Central America, on the larger Caribbean islands (Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, the Philippines and Guam. Jamaica was lost to England in 1655, Saint Doningue (Haiti) to France in 1659.
The capital was Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico City); the ports of Veracruz and Acapulco were of great significance.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain ceded to exist in 1821; Mexico and the United Provinces of Central America became independent. Spain held on to Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, the Mariana and Caroline Islands (until 1898/1899). The Spanish part of Hispaniola was occupied by Haiti.

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Country Profiles Modern Article : New Spain, from Wikipedia
Article : virreinato de Nueva Espana, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Historical Ch.2- : New Spain, pp.208-244 in vol.1 of E. Burke, An account of the European settlements in America, 1860, GB
Alexander von Humboldt, Political essay on the kingdom of New-Spain. vol.1, 1811, vol.2, 1811, vol.3, 1814, vol.4, 1814, GB
Idea estadistica y geografica del reyno de Nueva Espana, 1823, in Spanish, GB
Chr.G. von Murr, Nachrichten von verschiedenen Landern des spanischen Amerika vol.1, 1809, vol.2, 1811, in German, GB
Links Category : New Spain, from Wikipedia
Categoria : Virreinato de Nueva Espana, from Wikipedia
Organizations Organization of American Historians
Academia Mexicana de la Historia; Asociacion Mexicana de la Historia Economica; Asociacion de Historia Economica del Norte de Mexico; Sociedad Nuevoleonesa de Historia Geografia y Estadistica; El Instituto Nacional de Estudios Historicos de las Revoluciones de Mexico
Asociacion para el Fomento de los Estudios Historicos en Centroamerica
Instituto de Historia de Cuba
Philippine National Historical Society; Philippine Historical Association
Historical Dictionaries A. de Alcedo, Diccionario geografico-historico de las Indias Occidentales o America, vol.1, 1786, vol.2 1787, vol.3, 1788, vol.4, 1788, vol.5, 1789, in Spanish, GB
Diccionario, from AFEHC
Portals Niccolo Brooker's Colonial Mexico
Accounts of History Modern
Historical H. Cortez, F.A. de Lorenzana, Historia de Nueva-Espana, 1770, in Spanish, GB
Ph. Young, History of Mexico, Her Civil Wars, and Colonial and Revolutionary Annals (1850), posted on Internet Archive
C.R. Enock, Mexico, its ancient and modern civilisation, history and political conditions, topography and natural resources, industries and general development (1909), posted on Internet Archive
L.B. Benaduci, Idea de una nueva historia general de la America septentrional, 1746, in Spanish, GB
Eduardo Malo de Luque, Historia politica de los establecimientos ultramarinos de las naciones europeas, vol.1, 1784, vol.2, 1785, vol.3, 1786, vol.4, 1788, vol.5, 1790, in Spanish, GB
Specific Periods A. de Solis, The history of the conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards, vol.1, 1738, vol.2, 1738, GB
B. Diaz de Castillo, The true history of the conquest of Mexico (1568), vol.1, 1803, vol.2, 1803, GB
Bernal Diaz del Castillo, The mastering of Mexico (16th c./1916), IA
Historiography Spanish Historical Writing about the New World, from John Carter Brown Library
Administration Article : Organizacion territorial del Virreinato de Nueva Espana, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Military Felix Colon y Larriategui, Juzgados militares de Espana y sus Indias, vol.1, 1788, vol.2, 1788, vol.3, 1788, vol.4, 1789, in Spanish, GB
Economy & Finances Don J. Mabry, Economy in Colonial Spanish America (revised), Historical Text Archive
I. Vassoler, The Mexican Mining Bubble that Burst
R. Dobado, G.A. Marrero, The "Mining-Led Growth" in Bourbon Mexico, the Role of the State and the Economic Cost of Independence, 2005
A. Sluyter, Landscape Change and Livestock in Sixteenth-Century New Spain: The Archival Data Base, Penn State, 1997
W.W. Borah, New Spain's Century of Depression, EH Net
Palacio de Mineria, from Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Faculdad de Ingeneria
J. Munoz, La Mineria en Mexico. Bosquejo historico
K. Hatashita-Lee, History of Mexican Silver, History of Silver in Taxco, Mexico, from FloraMex
M. Torres, An Exposition of the Commerce of Spanish America, with some Observationbs upon its Importance to the United States 1816, GB
Social History
Ethnography D. Duran, Historia de las Indias de Nueva-Espana y islas de Tierra Firme, vol.1, 1867, in Spanish, GB
Religion G.R.G. Conway, An Englishman and the Mexican Inquisition, 1556-1560 ; being an account of the voyage of Robert Tomson to New Spain, his trial for heresy in the city of Mexico and other contemporary historical documents (1927), IA
J.F. de Castaniza, Relacion del restablecimiento de la sagrada Compania de Jesus en el reyno de Nueva Espana, 1816, in Spanish, GB
Cayetano Cabrera y Quintero, Escudo de armas de Mexico: celestial proteccion de esta nobilissima ciudad, de la Nueva Espana ..., Maria Santissima en su portentosa imagen del Mexicano Guadalupe .., 1746, in Spanish, GB
T. Malanga, Spanish Theater and a New Religion in New Spain : Don Bartolome de Alva¡¯s Mexican Catholicism, thesis Rutgers 2010
Article : Mexican Inquisition, from Wikipedia
Article : Cripto-Judaismo : Norteamerica, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Clara Steinberg-Spitz, The Inquisition in the New World
J.F. Chuchiak, Article : Inquisition, pp.46-48 in vol.2 of The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures, 2001, GB
Franciscans in New Spain, from Mission San Juan Capistrano Education Department
C.M. Garcia, La Biblia en la Nueva Espana, 2006
Judaizantes en la Nueva Espana, from Tribuna Israelita
R. Moreno de los Arcos, La Inquisicion para Indios en la Nueva Espana (Siglos XVI-XIX), thesis Univ. of Navarra, in Spanish
History of Regions General Article : Organizacion territorial del Virreinato de Nueva Espana, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Core Mexico Articles Nueva Galicia, Nueva Vizcaya, Nuevo Reino de Leon, Nuevo Santander, Nueva Extremadura, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Articles : Spanish Missions in Baja California, Spanish Missions in the Sonoran Desert, from Wikipedia
Captaincy General of Cuba Article : Capitania General de Cuba, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Article : Captaincy General of Cuba, Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo, Spanish Florida, from Wikipedia
Captaincy General of Puerto Rico Article : Capitania General de Puerto Rico, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Article : Captaincy General of Puerto Rico, from Wikipedia
Captaincy General of Guatemala Article : Capitania General de Guatemala, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Captaincy General of the Philippines Article : Capitania General de las Filipinas, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
J.M. de Zuniga, An Historical View of the Philippine Islands, vol.1, vol.2, 1814, GB
J.L. Phelan, The Hispanization of the Philippines Spanish Aims and Filipino Responses 1565-1700 (1959), posted on Internet Archive
Ch.H. Cunningham, The audiencia in the Spanish colonies as illustrated by the audiencia of Malina (1583-1800) (1919), posted on Internet Archive
Bartolome Leonardo de Argensola, Histoire de la conquete des Isles Moluques par les Espagnols vol.2, 1706, vol.3, 1706, in French, GB; Engl. trsl. by John Stevens, The discovery and conquest of the Molucco and Philippine Islands, 1708, GB
O.H.K. Spate, The Spanish Lake : The Pacific since Magellan vol.1, 2004, Australian National University
Captaincy General of Yucatan Article : Capitania General de Yucatan, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
California, Nueva Mexico, Texas Article : Spanish Missions in California, Spanish Missions in New Mexico, Spanish Missions in Texas, Spanish Missions in Arizona, from Wikipedia
Articles : Spanish Period of Arizona, History of California : Spanish Colonial Period, Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico, Alta California, Spanish Texas, from Wikipedia
Local History Article : Acapulco : History, El Paso del Norte (Ciudad Juarez) : History, Guadalajara : History, Mexico City : History, Oaxaca : History, Veracruz : History, Antigua Guatermala : History, Havana : History, Santiago de Cuba : History, Santo Domingo : History, History of Manila, from Wikipedia
San Diego de Alcala, Mission History, from Mission San Diego
D. Stevens, Zacatecas, the City of Silver,
The Capital City of New Spain, from Mexico City Virtual Guide

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen New Spain, from World Statesmen by Ben Cahoon
Lists of Bishops Mexico : Article : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Antequera, Oaxaca, Durango, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Mexico, Monterrey, Morelia, Yucatan, from Wikipedia
Caribbean : Article : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Santiago de Cuba, Santo Domingo, from Wikipedia
Central America : Articles : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Guatemala, Tegucigalpa (Honduras), Roman Catholic Diocese of Leon in Nicaragua, from Wikipedia
List of Archbishops/Bishops of Manila, Cebu, (Nueva) Caceres, from Wikipedia
Various Data Richard L. Garner, PhD, retired., 2011-09-30, "Replication data for: Annual Silver Registrations by Cajas: Mexico", http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/16805 World-Historical Dataverse
Richard L. Garner, PhD, retired., 2011-09-30, "Replication data for: Silver Series from Mint and Other Records", http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/16810 World-Historical Dataverse; Silver series (some annual but not all) based on mint and other records for Mexico, Guatemala, New Granada, Peru, Potosi & Chile
Documents Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks Category : Nueva Espana, from Wikimedia Commons
Image : Seal of the Inquisition in New Spain, from Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Search National Archives, UK
Search Vatican Secret Archives
U.S. National Archives : Records of the Spanish Governors of Puerto Rico 1767-1880
Constitutions, Laws Recopilacion de las Leyes de Indias, 1680, posted by Archivo Digital de la Legislacion en el Peru, in Spanish
Recopilacion de las Leyes de Indias, vol.1, 1774, vol.2, 1774, vol.3, 1774, in Spanish, GB
Recopilacion de las Leyes de Indias vol.1, 1791, vol.2, 1791, vol.3, 1791, in Spanish, GB
The ordinances of the mines of New Spain, 1825, in Spanish, GB
Reales ordenanzas para la direccion, regimen y gobierno del importante cuerpo de la mineria, 1783, in Spoanish, GB; also from Biblioteca Universia
Real ordenanza para el establecimiento e instruccion de intendentes de exercito y provincia en el Reino de la Nueva Espana, 1786, in Spanish, GB
Constituciones, y ordenanzas, para el regimen, y govierno del Hospital Real, y General de los Indios de esta Nueva Espana, 1778, in Spanish, GB
Nueva constitucion que ha de regir en Espana e Indias, 1808, in Spanish, GB
Ordenanzas de la Mineria de la Nueva Espana formadas y propuestas por su Real Tribunal, n.d., at Biblioteca Juridica Virtual
A collection of mining laws of Spain and Mexico, 1859, GB
Document Collections AFEHC Fuentes
Z. Nuttall (ed.), The earliest historical relations between Mexico and Japan : from original documents preserved in Spain and Japan (1906), posted on Internet Archive
Coleccion de documentos ineditos relativos al descubrimiento, conquista y organizacion de las antiguas posesiones Espanoles vol.2, 1862, vol.3, 1863, vol.5, 1865, vol.6, 1866, vol.8, 1867, GB
Historical Maps Maps of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, from Wikimedia Commons
Map : Mesoamerican Languages, from Titus
Map : Viceroyalty of New Spain in 1819, from Wikipedia
Map : Viceroyalty of New Spain 1760-1800, from PCL Utexas
New Spain c.1702, from Historic Maps Restored
Encyclopedia Entries
Religious Ostindien, pp.677-696, Amerika : Spanische Besitzungen : Florida, Mexico, Neu-Granada nebst Spanish Guiana, Peru, Rio de la Plata, die Inseln Cubam Porto Rico, Chiloe usw., pp.742-743, in vol.2 of C.Fr. Staeudlin, Kirchliche Geographie u. Statistik, 1804, in German, GB
Geographical Entry : Mexico / Neuspanien, p.64 in vol.3 of Geographisch-historisch-statistisches zeitungs-lexikon, 1784, in German, GB
Historical The Present State of Mexico, pp.156-239 in vol.3 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1746, Gb
Les Philippines, pp.118-133, La Mexique ou la Nouvelle Espagne, pp.275-296 in J.J. Vaissette, Geographie historique, ecclesiastique et civile, 1755, in French, GB
Spanish Dominions : Mexico, or New Spain, pp.247-276 in D. Ramsay, Universal History Americanized, 1819, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Diario de las discusiones y actas de las Cortes, vol.1, 1811, vol.2, 1811, vol.3, 1811, vol.4, 1811, vol.5, 1811, vol.6, 1811, vol.7, 1811, vol.8, 1811, vol.9, 1811, vol.10, 1811, vol.11, 1812, vol.12, 1812, vol.13, 1812, vol.14, 1812, vol.15, 1812, vol.16, 1812, vol.18, 1813, vol.19, 1813, vol.20, 1813, vol.21, 1813, vol.22, 1813, vol.23, 1813, 1820-1821 vol.1, 1820, 1820-1821 vol.3, 1820, 1820-1821 vol.4, 1820, 1820-1821 vol.7, 1820, 1820-1821 vol.8, 1820, 1820-1821 vol.9, 1820, 1820-1821 vol.10, 1820, 1820-1821 vol.11, 1820, 1820-1821 vol.12, 1821, 1820-1821 vol.13, 1821, 1820-1821 vol.16, 1821, 1820-1821 vol.18, 1821, 1820-1821 vol.20, 1821, 1820-1821 vol.21, 1821, 1820-1821 vol.22, 1821, 1820-1821 vol.23, 1821, in Spanish, GB
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives Archivo General de las Indias, Sevilla, Spain
Archivio General de la Nacion, Mexico
Archivo Nacional de Cuba; Archivo General de la Nacion, Dominican Republic, Archivo General de Puerto Rico (Spanish language site)
Archivo General de Centro America, Guatemala, Archivo General de la Nacion, El Salvador, Wikipedia Article : General National Archive (Nicaragua), Direccion General Archivo Nacional, Costa Rica
The National Archives, from WikiPilipinas
California State Archives, History and Archives Division, Arizona State Library, Archives and Historical Services Division, New Mexico Commission of Public Records, Texas State Library and Archives Commission
Libraries Biblioteca Nacional de Mexico
National Library of the Philippines
Arizona State Library, Texas State Library and Archives Commission
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins, Banknotes Viceroyalty of New Spain, from Resplandores
Search Coin Archives for New Spain, Mexico
Mexico, from World Coin Gallery, has a few from the Spanish period
D.F. Sedwick, The Colonial Coinage of Spanish America

Bibliography General RHS Bibliography; UK National Archive Online Library
on Guatemala Latin American Books
Online Bibliography on Latin American Environmental History
Online Libraries General Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
Biblioteca Universia; Biblioteca Juridica Virtual (Spanish language sites)
International Boundary Studies, search for Costa Rica
The Online Books Page
on Guatemala AFEHC Articulos
Asociacion Numismatica Centroamericana, Biblioteca Virtual
Thesis Server TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish); search for Costa Rica
Online Journals General Directory of Open Access Journals
On New Spain Dialogos. Revista Electronica in Spanish, on Costa Rican & Central American Historiography
Revista de Historia 2004, 2005 online
Historiography Article : Mexican Historiography, by D.A. Brading, pp.612-614, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts
Specific Topics William H. Prescott, History of the Conquest of Mexico with a Preliminary View of the Ancient Mexican Civilization and the Life of the Conqueror Hernando Cortez, Vol.II, NY : Harper 1854 [G]
Ian Heath, Armies of the Sixteenth Century, vol.2 : The armies of the Aztec and Inca Empires and other native peoples of the Americas, and the Conquistadores, 1450-1608, St. Peter Port, Guernsey : Foundry 1999, KMLA Lib. Call Sign G 355.0094 H437a
Economic History
Primary Sources Hernan Cortez, Letters from Mexico, trsl. and edited by Anthony Pagden, Yale : UP (1971) 1986, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 972.02 C828h
Miguel Leon-Portilla, Broken Spears. An Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico, Boston : Beacon Press (1962) 1990, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 972.02 L576b
Historical Dictionaries Donald C. Brigs, Marvin Alisky, Historical Dictionary of Mexico, Metuchen N.J.: Scarecrow 1981, 259 pp. [G]

Role Play M.K. Blade, Spanish Colonization of New Spain: Benevolent ? Malevolent ? Indifferent ?, 2000

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